Paine, Timothy D
Professor of Entomology
Professor of Entomology
- College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences
Research Specialization -
The long-term mission oriented objective of research conducted in my laboratory is to improve integrated pest management of insects affecting woody ornamental plants. The primary research focus is to develop a better understanding of the biology and ecology of the herbivorous insects through studies of their interactions with host plants, competitors, and natural enemies, and determine the influence of environmental stress on those interactions. Recommendations to modify management practices emerge from this research, resulting in more judicious insecticide use and increased reliance on biological and cultural control, while maintaining the aesthetic value of the plants.
- BA History 1973
- University of California, Davis
- BS Entomology 1973
- University of California, Davis
- PhD Entomology 1981
- University of California, Davis
2009 Entomological Society of America, Pacific Branch, Distinguished Achievement Award in Horticultural Entomology
2009 Entomological Society of America, Distinguished Achievement Award in Horticultural Entomology
2009 Entomological Society of America, Contributions to Horticulture Award
2008-2009 - National Academies Education Fellow in the Life Sciences
2006 - Fellow, Entomological Society of America
2006 - Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America Distinguished Teaching Award
2005 - Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
2004 - University of Pretoria Hans Merensky Visiting Scientist
2004 - University of California, Riverside Distinguished Teaching Award
2001 - American Nursey & Landscape Association Norman Jay Coleman Award for Research
1999-2000 - President, Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America
1999-2000 - UC Riverside Entomology Graduate Student Association Faculty Member of the Year
1999 - Entomological Society of America Recognition Award in Urban Entomology
1998 - University of Queensland Visiting Scholar Award
1997 - Entomological Society of America Pacific Branch Distinguished Teaching Award
1996 - International Society of Arboriculture, Western Chapter, Arboricultural Research Award
1995 - Pacific Branch Entomological Society of America Distinguished Teaching Award
1994 - La Trobe University Honorary Visiting Fellow, Victoria, Australia
1992 - USDA Distinguished Service Team Award (with T.S. Bellows) for Environmental and Natural Resource Protection
1992 - California Association of Nurserymen Annual Research Award
1992 - Centinela Chapter, California Association of Nurserymen Research Award
1991 - Orange County Chapter, California Association of Nurserymen Research Award
1988 - U.C. Ornamental Horticulture Education Coninuing Conference Service in Counties Award
1980 - Outstanding Graduate Student Award, Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America
Fundamental research projects in the laboratory have included studies of the biology and ecology of introduced insects in urban environments. Plant communities in urban environments are often diverse combinations that are native or introduced in origin, rich in the number of species, and complex in structure and distribution. Insect communities change as new species are introduced. Interactions among the phytophagous insects are effected by the different growing conditions in these environments. At the boundaries of urban areas are native communities of plants and arthropods that suffer pressures from urbanization and anthropogenic pollution. We have examined the interactions of host suitability, host species susceptibility, and natural enemies on insect population biology. A recent focus of the biological control research has been to determine how natural enemies contribute to replacement of herbivore species in communities of introduced species. We have also conducted research on the pheromone communication systems of bark beetles and have examined the interactions among bark beetles, their associated fungi, and host conifers. As part of a interdisciplinary research focus on the impact of environmental stresses on interactions between plants and their herbivores, recent studies have been conducted on the effect of temperature, humidity and insolation on settling behavior and survival of a leaf-galling psyllid, the interactions between mycorrhizal fungus colonization of plants and the herbivore populations, and the influence of ozone and nitrogen deposition on arthropod communities associated with black oak, ponderosa pine, and bracken fern.
Eatough Jones, M., T. D. Paine, and M. E. Fenn. 2008. The effect of nitrogen additions on oak foliage and herbivore communities at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution. Environmental Pollution. 151:434-442.
Mc Donnell, R.J, A. Hansen, T.D. Paine, and M.J. Gormally. 2008. A record of the invasive slug Veronicella cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1840) in California. Veliger. 50:81-82.
Reed, D.A., KA. Luhring, C.A. Stafford, A. Hansen, J.G. Millar, L.M. Hanks and T.D. Paine. 2007. Host defensive response against an egg parasitoid involves cellular encapsulation and melanization. Biological Control. 41: 214-222.
Mc Donnell, R.J. T.D. Paine, R.E. Orth, and M.J. Gormally. 2007. Life History and biocontrol potential of Dictya montana Steyskal, 1954 (Sciomyzidae), a snail-killing fly. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 83:101-109.
Casteel, C.L., L.L. Walling, and T.D. Paine. 2007. Effect of Mi-1.2 gene in Natal Host Plants on Behavior and Biology of the Tomato Psyllid Bactericerca cockerelli (Carter) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). J. Entomological Science. 42:155-162
Kabashima, J.N., L. Greenberg, M.K. Rust, and T.D. Paine. 2007. Aggressive interactions between Solenopsis invicta and Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100:148-154.
Mc Donnell, R.J., Paine, T.D. and Gormally, M.J. 2007 An investigation of trail-following behaviour in the malacophagous larvae of the sciomyzid flies Sepedon spinipes spinipes and Dictya montana. Journal of Insect Behavior. 20:367-376.
Wooley, S., and T.D. Paine. 2007. Can intraspecific genetic variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus etunicatum) affect a mesophylly-feeding herbivore (Tupiocoris notatus Distant) in Nicotiana rustica L.? Ecological Entomology. 32:428-434.
Hansen, A.K., G. Jeong, T.D. Paine, and R. Stouthamer. 2007. Frequency of secondary symbiont infection in an invasive psyllid relates to parasitism pressure on a geographic scale in California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73:7531-7535.
Casteel, C.L., L.L. Walling, and T.D. Paine. 2006. Behavior and Biology of the Tomato Psyllid Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Response to the Mi-1.2 Gene. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 121:67-72.
Bellows, T. S., Jr., T. D. Paine, L. G. Bezark, and J. Ball. 2006. Optimizing natural enemy release rates, and associated pest population decline rates, for Encarsia inaron Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Biological Control 37: 25-31.
Eatough Jones, M., T. D. Paine, M. E. Fenn, R. Alonso, and A. Bytnerowicz. 2006. Detecting changes in insect herbivore communities along a pollution gradient. Environmental Pollution. 143:377-387.
Bybee, L. F., J. G. Millar, T. D. Paine, K. Campbell, and C. C. Hanlon. 2005. Effects of single versus multiple mates: monogamy results in increased fecundity in the beetle Phoracantha semipunctata. Journal of Insect Behavior 18:513-527.
Hanks, L.M., T.D. Paine, J.G. Millar. 2005. Influence of the larval environment on performance and adult body size of the wood-boring beetle Phoracantha semipunctata (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 114:25-34.
Jetter, K. and T. D. Paine. 2004. Consumer Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Biological Control in the Urban Landscape. Biological Control 30:312-322.
Paine, T. D., A. L. Joyce, J. G. Millar, and L.M. Hanks. 2004. The effect of variation in host size on the sex ratio, size, and survival of Syngaster lepidus, a parasitoid of Eucalyptus Longhorned Beetles (Phoracantha spp.). II. Biological Control 30:374-381.
Luhring, K. A., J. G. Millar, T. D. Paine, D. Reed, L. M. Hanks and H. Christiansen. 2004. Oviposition preferences and progeny development of the egg parasitoid Avetianella longoi: factors mediating replacement of one species by a congener in a shared habitat. Biological Control 30:382-391.
Bybee, L. F., J. G. Millar, T. D. Paine, K. Campbell, and C. C. Hanlon. 2004. The effects of temperature on fecundity and longevity of Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environmental Entomology 33:138-146.
Eatough Jones, M., T. D. Paine, M. E. Fenn, and M. A. Poth. 2004. Influence of ozone and nitrogen deposition on bark beetle activity under drought conditions. Forest Ecology and Management 200:67-76.
Bybee, L. F., J. G. Millar, T. D. Paine, K. Campbell and C. C. Hanlon. 2004. The seasonal development of Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata in southern California. Environmental Entomology 33: 1232-1241.
Dunning, C. E., R. A. Redak, and T. D. Paine. 2003. Preference and performance of a generalist insect herbivore on Quercus agrifolia and Quercus engelmannii seedlings from a southern California oak woodland. Forest Ecology and Management. 174: 593-603.
Millar, J. G., T. D. Paine, A. J. Joyce, and L. M. Hanks. 2003. The effects of Eucalyptus pollen on longevity and fecundity of Eucalyptus longhorned borers. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96: 370-376.
Six, D. L., T. C. Harrington, J. Steimel, D. McNew, and T. D. Paine. 2003. Genetic relationships among Leptographium terebrantis and the mycangial fungi of three western Dendroctonus bark beetles. Mycologia 95:781-792.
Millar, J. G., T. D. Paine, C. D. Campbell, and L. M. Hanks. 2002. Methods for rearing Syngaster lepidus and Jarra phoracantha (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), larval parasitoids of the phloem-colonizing longhorned beetles Phoracantha semipunctata and P. recurva (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 92: 141-146.
Paine, T. D. and J. G. Millar. 2002. Insect pests of eucalypts in California: implications of managing invasive species. Bulletin of Entomological Research 92: 147-151.
Joyce, A. L., J. G. Millar, and T. D. Paine. 2002. The effect of host size on the sex ratio of Syngaster lepidus, a parasitoid of eucalyptus longhorned borers (Phoracantha spp.) Biological Control. 24: 207-213.
Paine, T. D., J. G. Millar, E. O. Paine, and L. M. Hanks. 2001. Influence of host log age and refuge from natural enemies on colonization and survival of Phoracantha semipunctata. Entomologia Experimentalis et. Applicata 98:157-163.
Luft, P. A., T. D. Paine, and G. P. Walker. 2001. Interactions of colonisation density and leaf environments on survival of Trioza eugeniae nymphs. Ecological Entomology 26: 263-270.
Hanks, L. M., J. G. Millar, T. D. Paine, Q. Wang, and E. O. Paine.
2001. Patterns of host utilization by two parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of the eucalyptus longhorned borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Biological Control 21:152-159.
Luft, P. A., T. D. Paine, and R. A. Redak. 2001. Limiting the potential for intraspecific competition: regulation of Trioza eugeniae oviposition on unexpanded leaf tissue. Ecological Entomology 26: 395-403.
Zalucki, M. P., S. B. Malcolm, T. D. Paine, C. C. Hanlon, and L. P. Brower. 2001. Itís the first bites that count: survival of first-instar monarchs on milkweeds. Austral Ecology 26: 547-555.
Hanks, L. M., J. G. Millar, T. D. Paine, and C. D. Campbell. 2000. Classical biological control of the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California. Environ. Entomol. 29: 369-375.
Six, D. L., and T. D. Paine. 1999. A phylogenetic comparison of ascomycete mycangial fungi and Dendroctonus bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 92:159-166.
Paine, T. D., J. G. Millar, C. C. Hanlon, and J.-S. Hwang. 1999. Identification of semiochemicals associated with Dendroctonus jeffreyi. J. Chem. Ecol. 25:433-453.
Hanks, L. M., T. D.Paine, J. G. Millar, C. D. Campbell and Ursula K. Schuch. 1999. Water relations of host trees and resistance to the phloem-boring beetle Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae). Oecologia. 119:400-407.
Luft, P. A., and T. D. Paine. 1998. Potential biotic factors influencing settling of Trioza eugeniae nymphs (Homoptera: Triozidae) on young foliage. Environ. Entomol. 27:1425-1430.